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Plasma powder cladding of power, chemical
and general engineering parts
The key advantage of plasma powder cladding is a low penetration of the base metal, as well as the possibility
of providing a high-quality metal with the required chemical composition and properties already in the
first deposited layer. This is particularly important in the case of using expensive nickel- or cobalt-base cladding
Plasma powder cladding of power, chemical and general engineering parts is implemented by using machines
equipped with modern control systems based on industrial computers, which provides a substantial improvement of
quality, stability and reliability of the cladding process. The machines comprise a new design of the plasmatron with a
lateral feed of the powder. This increases the process productivity, decreases losses of the powder and widens the
process application field, which is attributable to the possibility of depositing powders of magnetic iron-base alloys.
The machines meet the state-of-the-art requirements for environmental safety. They are equipped with a standalone
water-cooling unit and protective chamber, which provides a complete protection of workers from the harmful
effect of radiation of the plasma arc, as well as gases and dust emitted during cladding.
The modular principle allows performing the high-quality cladding on other parts by replacing two or three
modules and a control program, e.g. internal combustion chamber valves of different standard sizes, knives for
hot and cold cutting of metals and non-metallic materials, etc. This considerably widens the application field for
the plasma powder cladding machines.
- The computer-control system is intended for programmed control of operation of the machine. It provides
performance of a repeatable cycle of operations on loading, fixation, cladding (including control of the process
mode parameters) and unloading of billets in cladding of a series of similar-type pieces.
- The plasmatron of a new design with lateral feed of the powder provides the pilot arc current of up to 40 A,
main arc rated current of 300 A, maximal current of 400 A, duty cycle of 100 %, and maximal deposition rate of
- The powder feeder is designed for feeding the powder with particle sizes of 63-200 μm at a velocity of 5–100
g/min, the hopper capacity being 2 dm3, and duty cycle being 100 %.
- The workpiece rotation mechanism provides the possibility of external program control of the workpiece rotation
speed, rotation of workpieces with a weight of up to 20 kg and diameter of 30 to 200 mm, rotation speed
ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 min-1, and duty cycle of 100 %.
- The system for loading, fixation and unloading of workpieces provides capture and placement of billets in the
cladding position, capture of the clad billets from the cladding position and loading them into a container.
- The system for the technological setting of displacements and positioning of the plasmatron provides a twoplane
inclination of the plasmatron (±15°), positioning of the plasmatron in axes X and Y (up to 150 mm in each
axis), and amplitude of oscillations of the plasmatron within a range of 2-25 mm at an oscillation frequency of 8-80
- The stand-alone cooling unit provides water pressure of not less than 0.3 MPa and water consumption of not
less than 10 l/min.
- The gas feed unit provides the following gas flow rates: plasma gas – 1–3 l/min, transportation gas – 4–6 l/
min, and shielding gas – 10-20 l/min. The working gas is argon.
The protective chamber provides complete protection of the personnel from the harmful effect of radiation of
the plasma arc, as well as gases and dust emitted during cladding.
The computer-controlled machine for plasma powder cladding consists of the following units: computer control
system, high-voltage power supply, main and pilot arc power supply, plasmatron, powder feeder, workpiece rotation
mechanism, system for loading, fixation and unloading of workpieces, system for setting of displacements
and positioning of the plasmatron, stand-alone cooling unit, gas feeding unit, and protective chamber.
Machines for plasma powder cladding of iron-, nickel- and cobalt-base powders can be used as part of the automatic
production line or as a separate set.